Navajo Nation Sheep Dip Vat Project
In 1983, the US EPA banned toxaphene as a suspected carcinogen. The potential threat of toxaphene was identified by Dr. Christine J. Benally. Dr. Benally's 1988 doctoral thesis investigated the BIA dip vats from 1990 to 1993. In 1991, Navajo Superfund Program (NSP) and US EPA Region 9 (EPA) started the Navajo Toxaphene Dip Vat Project. Bioremediation studies using aerobic and anaerobic bacteria for degradation were conducted in their Edison, NJ laboratory. When the procedure was
defined, two dip vat site pilot projects were established on the Navajo
Nation. The purpose of these test plots was to select the best treatment method to reduce toxaphene, using naturally-occurring soil bacteria.