MAKING A CHOICE ABOUT ABORTION

by Linda Hull

Copyright © 2001 by Linda G. Hull, All rights reserved.


Table of Contents:

Introduction

Fetal Development

Abortion Methods

Abortion Side Effects

What God 's Word Says About Life

What God's Word Says About Children

Conclusion

Help is Available

Bibliography

Topical Studies

Linda's Words of Encouragement

Back to Words of Encouragement


INTRODUCTION--PERSONAL TESTIMONY

One of the first issues I was in favor of was Roe v. Wade back in 1973. I thought this was a breakthrough for all human kind! It was touted as the great fix for unwanted pregnancies. Since there was only tissue in the womb, and the baby wasn't born, a life wasn't being taken. Life didn't begin until birth, you see. I was thrilled when the law was passed.

What I didn't know at the time, was truth. I didn't know what was going on inside the womb during pregnancy. I believed the newspapers and media people who said that providing women a choice about pregnancy was the right thing to do. I didn't know what standard was used to determine if this was a right or wrong choice. I didn't know what an abortion was. I knew that there were some women who "got rid of the baby" in secret.

In the ensuing years, I have learned that the no state had an abortion law equal to the new law as it was set down by the Supreme Court. The new law permitted abortion on demand in any stage of pregnancy.

My education grew considerably with my employment at a military hospital. The hospital photographer and I enjoyed many theological discussions. Oh yes, I was a Christian. He and I didn't agree totally on the abortion issue. One day, he brought me a photograph. Military hospitals were performing abortions as part of the medical treatment provided for military personnel and military dependents. The photograph was of an aborted baby in a bucket. It was quite well developed. I was shocked. No words could describe my confusion. I had been told that the contents of the womb was tissue, but not a baby. That was a rather naïve theory in hindsight. Did the tissue suddenly take on the shape of a baby during delivery? I had obviously believed a lie; in fact, I had believed what I had wanted to believe. I felt incredibly stupid!

As a Christian I was embarrassed and ashamed because I had supported the killing of babies. I consoled myself with the thought that at least I hadn't had one, abortion that is. I knew that I needed to pray, to tell my Lord about my stupidity, ignorance, and betrayal of His law and His will. It was a bitter task. However, my Lord forgave me and restored my inner peace with my confession of my guilt. He removed my shame. I had been guilty of helping along a piece of legislation that was wrong. Yet, I was not emotionally involved so getting over my stupidity was relatively easy.

Years later I had an opportunity to counsel women who were struggling with an unplanned pregnancy. I received training through my local "crisis pregnancy center". It was a Christ-centered ministry that operated through donations, supplied with volunteers who were willing to learn the truth and teach it to others. I served with a fine group of ladies for three years.

During my time, I heard many stories of unwanted pregnancies. A couple were the result of rape, but most were just untimely. The age range was mid teens to thirties. I personally counseled with several girls who had had an abortion and were pregnant again. Yes, they knew about birth control. As a Christian, I could never advise someone to use a birth control method because I felt that interfered with God's divine will. However, for curiosity sake, I did ask if they used a contraceptive. Most did not. The reasons centered on convenience. There was an interesting argument, however, that I was told many times: if the girl was prepared with contraception, then she felt like she was being immoral, knowing all the while that an intimate relationship was planned. If no contraception was used, then her moral standards were intact because she could fool herself into believing that it was a spontaneous event. No one wanted to be considered immoral, but did want to engage in intimate relations at will. There was obviously a lot of guilt about the illicit behavior. More guilt built up when a pregnancy was involved, and even more guilt over giving the baby up for adoption or having an abortion. The baby confirmed the act of immorality.

For some, a pregnancy was a way to hold onto a straying boyfriend or husband. For those girls who felt unloved, a baby was someone to love, someone that belonged solely to the girl. These girls seldom wanted an abortion, but oftentimes felt the pressure from the boyfriend to have an abortion. Amid many tears, these girls would give in and have an abortion to save a relationship.

Thankfully, many of the tests we performed were negative. The relief was tangible. We used the opportunity to talk about the "what ifs", and again, to speak the truth.

In this context, here are some of the facts about the developing baby in the womb, abortion, and abortion's aftermath.

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FETAL DEVELOPMENT1

Week 1 Day 1

Fusion of one sperm and one ovum in the fallopian tube to form a single cell. This is the actual beginning of life. At this time the human cell contains 46 chromosomes, the sex of the human is established, inherited traits and characteristics are determined and cell division is begun.

Week 1 Day 2

The one cell divides to become two. Approximately every twelve hours the cells will continue to divide.

Week 1 Day 3-4

The zygote (fertilized egg) moves toward the womb. Cells begin grouping to form the body and the outer covering which will become the placenta.

Week 1 Day 6-7

Implantation into the womb occurs. At this time there are approximately 108 cells 1/100 inch in diameter.

Week 2 Day 7-14

The placenta forms and secretes the pregnancy hormone, HCG.

Week 3 Day 15

First menstrual period is missed.

Week 3 Day 18-20

Early brain development and formation of the cardiovascular system.

Week 3 Day 20

Thyroid begins to develop.

Week 4 Day 22

Heart begins to beat.

Week 4 Day 23

Early eye and ear developments occur.

Week 4 Day 26-27

Arm and leg buds are present.

Week 5 Day 31

Mouth begins to form.

Week 5 Day 30-33

Arm buds subdivide into shoulder, arm, and hand.

Week 5 Day 34-35

More rapid development of the nervous system and early development of spinal cartilage.

Week 6 Day 38

Upper lip is formed.

Week 6 Day 40-42

Arms bend at elbow. Fingerprint beginnings can be seen.

Week 7 Day 43

Brain waves may be recorded. The heart is formed essentially like an adult.

Week 7 Day 44

Eyelids begin to form. Initial buds of teeth are present.

Week 7 Day 45

Tip of nose becomes distinct. Toes begin to form. Cartilage and bone formation is beginning. Ears are finished. Body is padded with muscle. Liver and kidney function is present and lung development begins.

Week 7 Day 47

Genital membranes are forming.

Week 8 Day 50

Fingers become distinct.

Week 8 Day 51-54

External genitalia are developing.

Week 8 Day 55

Beginnings of all essential external and internal structures are present. Muscular reactions may be seen in response to stimulation. Complete skeleton of cartilage is present.

Week 9

Brain and body systems are all completely present. Eyelids are completely formed and cover eyes. Baby (fetus) is 50mm in length.

Week 10

Face has human profile, and early fingernail development occurs.

Week 12

Vocal cords are complete. Taste buds and saliva producing glands appear. Baby begins to urinate and swallows regularly 1-3 cups of fluid a day. Baby becomes active. Heart beats 120-160 times per minute. Sex of baby can now be determined.

Week 13-16 (4 Months)

Rapid growth takes place. Bone formation shows clearly on x-ray. Early brain development still in progress. Baby is 6 ½ inches long and weighs approximately 4 oz.

Week 17-20

Slower growth occurs. Baby's movements felt by mother-kicks, curls toes, bends arms, forms tight fist with fingers. The baby is covered with a downy hair and a greasy cheese-like material called vernix caseosa. Eyebrows and head hair are visible. At the end of the 5th month, the baby is 12" long and weighs approximately 1 lb.

5-6 Months

Substantial weight is gained during this time. Blood in the capillaries is visable. All organs are well-developed. The heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope. Eyes may open and are sensitive to light. Sounds can be heard. Baby can now survive outside the womb, but still has immature lungs which lead to a high mortality rate. Subcutaneous fat is forming under the skin. Fingerprints and footprints are now present. At the end of the 6th month, the baby is 14" long and weighs approximately 2 lbs.

7 Months

Baby may suck thumb. Taste buds are forming. Baby is 16" long and weighs 3 ½ lbs.

8 Months

Baby is getting plumper. Fingernails are growing. Baby is 18" long and weighs approximately 5 lbs.

9 Months

Baby's skin is red and smooth. Downy hair is now only present on arms and shoulders.

________________________

I remember one time after showing a young woman a color photograph of a developing baby, that she expressed total shock and amazement! She had just come from another counseling office-a non-Christian office. Her counselor told her that there was only tissue inside her womb, not a baby. For some reason, this young woman wanted a second opinion to confirm her pregnancy. She came to our Center. After talking with her about her experience earlier in the day, I received confirmation of rumors I had heard that other counseling centers did not always have the truth. I feel gratified to know that today's technology has made possible the opportunity to know how life is formed within the womb. With this knowledge, old rumors can be laid to rest. Be assured that with this knowledge now comes responsibility. We can no longer claim ignorance as an excuse to do what is convenient to us; that is to abort the unborn child. Sources may differ as to the exact timing of various fetal developments, but there is no longer any doubt as to when that one fertilized cell becomes human.

Many of the girls I talked with did not know what they would do if their pregnancy test was positive--confirming that a baby was on the way. Some were considering abortion as an option. If the girl thought her family would react negatively, then an abortion was considered. Many times peer pressure influenced the decision. However, once information about abortion is explained, an abortion decision was often reversed.

The method of abortion depends on the age of the fetus, and the law of the land. Many states allow abortions only up through a specific gestation period. A knowledge of abortion methods and risks can aid in making a choice about a pregnancy.

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ABORTION METHODS1, 2

*First trimester (first 3 months) abortion methods:

The "morning after" pill (RU-486) is a high dose of estrogen given orally which prevents implantation of the fertilized egg. It is not effective once implantation has occurred.

The Suction method involves dilation of the cervix with a plastic tube inserted into the womb. The suction is very powerful and literally dismembers the fetus, sucking out all tissue and placenta. This must be done before 12 weeks.

The D & C method is done by dilation of the cervix and scraping of the uterus. Body parts are recognizable. This method is done between 10-12.

The Suction Curettage or Vacumn Abortion(combination D&C and Suction) is done with an instrument attached to a suction device inserted into the uterus through a dilated cervix. The uterus is scraped and the contents suctioned out. About 90% of all abortions are done using this method.

*Second trimester (4-6 months) abortion methods:

Prostaglandin Abortion is a prostaglandin drug administered into the amniotic sac causing extremely strong uterine contractions usually resulting in the death of the fetus before expulsion. This is a commonly used method for second trimester abortions, which sometimes results in live births.

The supersaturated salt solution used in a Saline Abortion is infused into the fetal sac through the abdominal wall. This solution kills the fetus, burning it severely in the process. This procedure takes from 1-3 hours. The fetus tries to get away from the caustic substance often kicking, and writhing. The womb contracts and expels the tissue within 24-48 hours. Sometimes a D&C is required afterwards. The saline solution can also damage the uterus frequently requiring the removal of the uterus.

A Hysterotomy is similar to a C-section. An incision is made into the womb through the abdomen. The umbilical cord is sometimes occluded before delivery to prevent a live birth. This is usually performed at 20-26 weeks.

In recent days, a new method of abortion is now being offered- the partial birth abortion.

The partial-birth abortion is done just before a full delivery is accomplished. The baby's body is delivered except for the head. Then a sharp instrument is pushed into the base of the skull, the brain contents are suctioned out, then the head is delivered.

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ABORTION SIDE EFFECTS2

Abortion, regardless of the method, is not easy or painless. Abortion causes many medical risks and side effects. Sometimes an incomplete abortion occurs resulting in blood clotting, bleeding--including possible hemorrhage, infections, and sterility. Cervical laceration or uterine perforation can occur as well as possible damage to surrounding organs. Some women have experienced cardiac arrest and death due to a sensitivity to anesthesia. Sometimes a live birth occurs. Complications occur more frequently, the longer the gestation period. The most common minor complications are: minor infections, bleeding, fevers and chills, second degree burns, chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, gastrointestinal disturbances, painful or disrupted menstrual cycles, and Rh sensitization. Abortion is not safe.

Long term complications can become apparent as well after an abortion. Scar tissue can form and cause problems for future pregnancies. The risk of miscarriage rises. Dilation of the cervix can cause cervical damage which can lead to a weakened cervix leading to premature birth in a future pregnancy. Damage to the uterine wall can cause faulty placement of the placenta in future pregnancies. Abnormal development of the placenta can increase the risk of fetal malformation, excessive bleeding, and possible death of the fetus. Studies also show an increased risk of breast and cervical cancer because of the disruption of the changes of the body during pregnancy.

There is also emotional trauma involved with an abortion. Most women experience intense grief and guilt. Interpersonal relationships become difficult to handle because anger and resentment is turned upon the boyfriend or husband. Chronic depression, loneliness, bitterness, low self-esteem, or chronic anger are some of the symptoms of post-abortion trauma. Post-abortion trauma, whether mild or severe, usually takes a long time to get through, if ever.

It is important to understand that most abortion providers do not provide follow-up treatment to deal with complications or post-abortion trauma. Their business is to provide a service for a fee at the customer's risk. Doctors who perform abortions must also deal with the live births that may occur. Usually most doctors don't actually kill a live born infant, but will neglect it to the point of death, usually within minutes or hours. Remember that abortion providers are a business, and like most businesses are interested in increasing profits, cutting their overhead, and becoming more productive.

We don't usually think of medical procedures as being either moral or immoral. It is our habit to believe that doctors and nurses are there to preserve life and to sustain life. We trust our doctors and nurses to use their wisdom and technology to make us well when we are sick. It is only since Roe v. Wade that issues have arisen that now touch on morality.

So it is important to identify what our standard is regarding the decision we make on morality issues. My standard is God's Word, the Bible. People are free to determine their position on issues such as euthanasia, fetal tissue research, cloning, etc. based on their personal opinions. For Christians, our standard must be the Bible.

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What God's Word Says About Life:

"And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat, and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day." Genesis 1:26-31

"And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart." Genesis 6:5-6

"And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered. Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things. But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man: at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man. And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein." Genesis 9:1-7

"And the Lord said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old? Is any thing too hard for the Lord?" Genesis 18:13-14a

"And when the Lord saw that Leah was hated, he opened her womb" Genesis 29:31a

"And the name of the second called he Ephraim: For God hath caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction." Genesis 41:52.

From these verses we can conclude that God expects mankind to multiply. It is our Lord who causes a woman to conceive and to bear children. The natural forces of conception are in place and continue. There are also times that our Lord intervenes to bring about conception and the birth of a child.

"Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine." Exodus 13:2

An abortion usually robs God of His firstborn, the sanctified one. Statistics can show us that most women who have an abortion are often aborting their first child.

"And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them. Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: come on, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land. And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah: and he said, when ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then ye shall kill him: but if it be a daughter, then she shall live." Exodus 1: 7-10, 15

There are always those who decide that the babies must not live. In the preceding passage, it is the Pharaoh, who decides that the baby boys must be put to death. Later we see that it is the Hebrews themselves who offer their children as a sacrifice to the pagan gods of the nations who surround them.

"They did not destroy the nations, concerning whom the Lord commanded them: but were mingled among the heathen and learned their works. And they served their idols: which were a snare unto them. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils, and shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan: and the land was polluted with blood. Thus were they defiled with their works, and went a whoring with their own inventions. Therefore was the wrath of the Lord kindled against his people, insomuch that he abhorred his own inheritance." Psalm 106:34-40

The people became defiled because they practiced child sacrifice to the God, Molech. God exercised judgment against them for this great sin. Later it was Herod who sought to kill the baby boys. This time, the goal was to destroy the Messiah.

One of the ten commandments is "thou shalt not kill". This refers to murder. Abortion is premeditated murder. Here are the penalties for murder mentioned in the Bible :

"He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death." Exodus 21:12

"If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life" Exodus 21:22

God's Word tells us that life is in the blood. That is why the Hebrews were forbidden to drink blood or to eat flesh that had not been bled.

"For it is the life of all flesh; the blood of it is for the life thereof: therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof" Leviticus 17:14

"Only be sure that thou eat not the blood: for the blood is the life; and thou mayest not eat the life with the flesh." Deuteronomy 12:23

Here is another interesting verse that might be applied on behalf of those live born babies who suffer deformities through an attempted abortion:

"And he that killeth any man shall surely be put to death. And if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him" Leviticus: 24: 17, 19

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What God's Word Says About Children:

"Lo, children are an heritage of the Lord: and the fruit of the womb is his reward. As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man; so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them: they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate." Psalm 127: 3-5

"Blessed is every one that feareth the Lord, that walketh in his ways. For thou shalt eat the labour of thine hands: happy shalt thou be, and it shall be well with thee. Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the sides of thine house: thy children like olive plants round about thy table." Psalm 128:1-3

"Therefore shall ye lay up these my words in your heart and in your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand, that they may be as frontlets between your eyes. And ye shall teach them your children, speaking of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. And thou shalt write them upon the door posts of thine house, and upon thy gates: that you days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, in the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers to give them, as the days of heaven upon the earth." Deuteronomy 11; 18-21

God clearly has plans for the children we bear. We are to teach them. They are to be blessings and a reward to us for our faithfulness. They are not to be considered a burden.

"Then the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations." Jeremiah 1:5

"For thou hast possessed my reins: thou hast covered me in my mother's womb, I will praise thee; for I am fearfully and wonderfully made: marvellous are thy works; and that my soul knoweth right well. My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth. Thine eyes did see my substance,yet being unperfect; and in thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them." Psalm 139: 13-16 ( a psalm of David)

"But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard: and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John. And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord" Luke 1: 13-15a

These verses indicate to us that God knows who we are before we are yet formed in the womb, and He has a purpose and a plan for each of us. No life is given at random with no thought as to its future. Notice too that a child is considered by God to be a child even in the womb, even while being formed.


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Conclusion

Abortion is not the answer to an unplanned pregnancy. An unplanned and unwanted pregnancy is often the result of a promiscuous relationship. God's Word teaches us that fornication, defined as a sexual relationship outside of marriage, is a sin. A promiscuous lifestyle is sin, and the desire and act to be rid of the evidence, a baby, is another.

"…abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood." Acts 15:20

"Now the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord; and the Lord for the body." 1 Corinthians 6:13b

"Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body." 1 Corinthians 6:18

"Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband." 1 Corinthians 7:2

"For it is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication…" 1 Thessalonians 3:3

"Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh (homosexuality), are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire." Jude 7

To avoid the consequences of a promiscuous relationship, we must choose abstinence. We must choose to avoid sexual relationships outside of the marriage. We must choose not to have a sexual relationship with someone other than our spouse. An adulterous relationship is sin and can also lead to an unwanted pregnancy. Here is what God's Word says about adultery:

"Who whoso committeth adultery with a woman lacketh understanding: he that doeth it destroyeth his own soul." Proverbs 6:32

"And the man that committeth adultery with another man's wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour's wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." Leviticus 20:10

"Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge." Hebrews 13:4

"But I say unto you, that whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart." Matthew 5:28

"Knew ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adultereres, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.

Notice that the preceeding verse is followed by the following:

And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." 1 Corinthians 6:9-10

There is hope for the sinner. It is clear that God's Word teaches us to value human life. We can conclude that abortion is a heinous sin which when committed justifies God's judgment and punishment. Yet, it is not an unforgivable sin. As with all sin, we can come before our Lord and ask His forgiveness and receive it. We can be made whole and restored to a relationship with Him.


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Help is Available

For those who do not wish to abort their baby and do not want to parent, there is the option of adoption. Adoption is becoming more and more commonplace in our society. There are various agencies located throughout the country who can offer their help in providing a loving home for a child. Adoption is always voluntary. Many agencies do allow a "change of mind" before placement occurs. Agencies may provide housing and medical care through the pregnancy. Education can be continued during the pregnancy as well.

For those who wish to parent but feel that the financial obligation is too great, there are government resources available to help. Many local ministries can provide layettes, baby clothes, furniture, and food for the coming infant. For those who can not qualify for government help and who haven't enough resources, help also comes through family, friends, and local churches.

If you are struggling with an unwanted pregnancy and would like to talk with someone, please email Choose Life, a Christ-centered crisis pregnancy center. Someone there will be happy to work with you via email. The email address is: chooselife81@hotmail.com


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Bibliography:

  1. Choose Life Training Manual, unpublished
  2. Reardon, D. C. Life Stories. Wheaton; Crossway Books, a division of Good News Publishers, 1992.